*latexhelp.txt*    For Vim version 6.0.  Last change: 2001 Dec 20

LATEX HELP 1.6
translated (with minor changes) for vim
by Mikolaj Machowski

This file documents LaTeX2e, a document preparation system. LaTeX2e is a
macro package for TeX.

This is edition 1.6 of the LaTeX2e documentation, and is for the Texinfo
that is distributed as part of Version 19 of GNU Emacs. It uses version
2.134 or later of the texinfo.tex input file.

This is translated from LATEX.HLP v1.0a in the VMS Help Library.  The
pre-translation version was written by George D. Greenwade of Sam Houston
State University.

The LaTeX 2.09 version was written by Stephen Gilmore <stg@dcs.ed.ac.uk>.

The LaTeX2e version was adapted from this by Torsten Martinsen
<bullestock@dk-online.dk>.

Version for vim of this manual was written by Mikolaj Machowski
<mikmach@wp.pl>

Torsten Martinsen. Copyright for translation' for vim Mikolaj Machowski 2001.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual
provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on
all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire
notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that the sections entitled "Distribution" and "General Public
License" may be included in a translation approved by the author instead of
in the original English.

==============================================================================
*LaTeX* *latex*

The LaTeX command typesets a file of text using the TeX program and the LaTeX
Macro package for TeX. To be more specific, it processes an input file
containing the text of a document with interspersed commands that describe how
the text should be formatted.

1.  Commands                                    |latex-commands|
2.  Counters                                    |latex-counters|
3.  Cross References                            |latex-references|
4.  Definitions                                 |latex-definitions|
5.  Document Classes                            |latex-classes|
6.  Layout                                      |latex-layout|
7.  Environments                                |latex-environments|
8.  Footnotes                                   |latex-footnotes|
9.  Lengths                                     |latex-lengths|
10. Letters                                     |latex-letters|
11. Line & Page Breaking                        |latex-breaking|
12. Making Paragraphs                           |latex-paragraphs|
13. Margin Notes                                |latex-margin-notes|
14. Math Formulae                               |latex-math|
15. Modes                                       |latex-modes|
16. Page Styles                                 |latex-page-styles|
17. Sectioning                                  |latex-sectioning|
18. Spaces & Boxes                              |latex-spaces-boxes|
19. Special Characters                          |latex-special-char|
20. Splitting the Input                         |latex-inputing|
21. Starting & Ending                           |latex-start-end|
23. Terminal Input/Output                       |latex-terminal|
24. Typefaces                                   |latex-typefaces|
25. Parameters                                  |latex-parameters|

==============================================================================
1. Commands                                     *latex-commands*

A LaTeX command begins with the command name, which consists of a \ followed
by either
(a) a string of letters or
(b) a single non-letter.

Arguments contained in square brackets, [], are optional while arguments
contained in braces, {}, are required.

NOTE: LaTeX is case sensitive. Enter all commands in lower case unless
explicitly directed to do otherwise.

==============================================================================
2. Counters                                     *latex-counters*

|\alph|                 Print value of a counter using letters
|\arabic|               Print value of a counter using numerals
|\fnsymbol|             Print value of a counter using symbols
|\newcounter|           Define a new counter
|\refstepcounter|       Add to counter, resetting subsidiary counters
|\roman|                Print value of a counter using roman numerals
|\setcounter|           Set the value of a counter
|\stepcounter|          Add to counter, resetting subsidiary counters
|\usecounter|           Use a specified counter in a list environment
|\value|                Use the value of a counter in an expression

Everything LaTeX numbers for you has a counter associated with it. The name of
the counter is the same as the name of the environment or command that
produces the number, except with no |\\|. (|lc-enumi| - |lc-enumiv| are used
for the nested |\enumerate| environment.) Below is a list of the counters
used in LaTeX's standard document classes to control numbering.

|part|          |paragraph|     |figure|      |enumi|    |itemi|
|chapter|       |subparagraph|  |table|       |enumii|   |itemii|
|section|       |page|          |footnote|    |enumiii|  |itemiii|
|subsection|    |equation|      |mpfootnote|  |enumiv|   |itemiv|
|subsubsection|

Increments the {counter} by the amount specified by the
{value} argument. The {value} argument can be negative.

\alph{counter}                                  *\alph* *\Alph*
\Alph{counter}
This command causes the value of the counter to be printed in
alphabetic characters. |\alph| command uses lower case
alphabetic alphabetic characters, i.e., a, b, c... while the
|\Alph| command uses upper case alphabetic characters, i.e.,
A, B, C....

\arabic{counter}                                *\arabic*
Causes the value of the {counter} to be printed in Arabic
numbers, i.e., 3.

\fnsymbol{counter}                              *\fnsymbol*
Causes the value of the {counter} to be printed in a specific
sequence of nine symbols that can be used for numbering
footnotes.
Note: counter must have a value between 1 and 9 inclusive.

\newcounter{foo}[counter]                       *\newcounter*
Defines a new counter named {foo}. The counter is initialized
to zero.  The optional argument [counter] causes the counter
{foo} to be reset whenever the counter named in the optional
argument is incremented.

\refstepcounter{counter}                        *\refstepcounter*
Command works like |\stepcounter|, except it also defines the
current |\ref| value to be the result of \thecounter.

\roman{counter}                                 *\roman* *\Roman*
\Roman{counter}
Causes the value of the {counter} to be printed in Roman
numerals.  The |\roman| command uses lower case Roman numerals,
i.e., i, ii, iii..., while the |\Roman| command uses upper case
Roman numerals, i.e., I, II, III....

\stepcounter{counter}                           *\stepcounter*
Adds one to the {counter} and resets all subsidiary counters.

\setcounter{counter}{value}                     *\setcounter*
Sets the value of the {counter} to that specified by the
{value} argument.

\usecounter{counter}                            *\usecounter*
Command is used in the second argument of the |list|
environment to allow the {counter} specified to be used to
number the list items.

\value{counter}                                 *\value*
Produces the value of the {counter} named in the mandatory
argument. It can be used where LaTeX expects an integer or
number, such as the second argument of a |\setcounter| or
\hspace{\value{foo}\parindent}
<               It is useful for doing arithmetic with counters.

==============================================================================
3. Cross References                             *latex-references*

One reason for numbering things like figures and equations is to refer the
reader to them, as in "See Figure 3 for more details."

|\label|                Assign a symbolic name to a piece of text
|\pageref|              Refer to a page number
|\ref|                  Refer to a section, figure or similar

\label{key}                                     *\label*
Command appearing in ordinary text assigns to the {key} the
number of the current sectional unit; one appearing inside a
numbered environment assigns that number to the {key}.

A {key} can consist of any sequence of letters, digits, or
punctuation characters. Upper and lowercase letters are
different.

To avoid accidentally creating two labels with the same name,
it is common to use labels consisting of a prefix and a suffix
separated by a colon. The prefixes conventionally used are
* 'cha' for chapters
* 'sec' for lower-level sectioning commands
* 'fig' for figures
* 'tab' for tables
* 'eq'  for equations
Thus, a label for a figure would look like: >
\label{fig:bandersnatch}

\pageref{key}                                   *\pageref*
Command produces the page number of the place in the text
where the corresponding |\label| command appears.  ie. where
\label{key} appears.

\ref{key}                                       *\ref*
Command produces the number of the sectional unit, equation
number, ... of the corresponding |\label| command.

==============================================================================
4. Definitions                                  *latex-definitions*

|\newcommand|           Define a new command
|\newenvironment|       Define a new environment
|\newtheorem|           Define a new theorem-like environment
|\newfont|              Define a new font name

\newcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}
\renewcommand{cmd}[args]{definition}
\renewcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}

These commands define (or redefine) a command.

{cmd}           A command name beginning with a |\\|. For |\newcommand| it must
not be already defined and must not begin with |\end|; for
|\renewcommand| it must already be defined.

{args}          An integer from 1 to 9 denoting the number of arguments of the
command being defined. The default is for the command to have
no arguments.

{default}       If this optional parameter is present, it means that the
command's first argument is optional. The default value of the
optional argument is default.

{definition}    The text to be substituted for every occurrence of {cmd}; a
parameter of the form #n in {cmd} is replaced by the text of
the nth argument when this substitution takes place.

*\newenvironment* *\renewenvironment*
\newenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}
\newenvironment{nam}[args][default]{begdef}{enddef}
\renewenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}

These commands define or redefine an environment.

{nam}           The name of the environment. For |\newenvironment| there must
be no currently defined environment by that name, and the
command \nam must be undefined.  For |\renewenvironment| the

{args}          An integer from 1 to 9 denoting the number of arguments of
the newly-defined environment. The default is no arguments.

{default}       If this is specified, the first argument is optional, and
default gives the default value for that argument.

{begdef}        The text substituted for every occurrence of \begin{nam}; a
parameter of the form #n in {cmd} is replaced by the text of
the nth argument when this substitution takes place.

{enddef}        The text substituted for every occurrence of \end{nam}. It
may not contain any argument parameters.

\newtheorem{envname}{caption}[within]                   *\newtheorem*
\newtheorem{envname}[numberedlike]{caption}

This command defines a theorem-like environment.

{envname}       The name of the environment to be defined. A string of
letters. It must not be the name of an existing environment or
counter.

{caption}       The text printed at the beginning of the environment, right
before the number. This may simply say "Theorem", for example.

{within}        The name of an already defined counter, usually of a sectional
unit. Provides a means of resetting the new theorem counter
within the sectional unit.

{numberedlike}  The name of an already defined theorem-like environment.

The |\newtheorem| command may have at most one optional argument.

\newfont{cmd}{fontname}                                 *\newfont*
Defines the command name {cmd}, which must not be currently
defined, to be a declaration that selects the font named
{fontname} to be the current font.

==============================================================================
5. Document Classes                             *latex-classes*

\documentclass[options]{class}                  *\documentclass*

Valid LaTeX document classes include:
*article                *article-class*
*report                 *report-class*
*letter                 *letter-class*
*book                   *book-class*
*slides                 *slides-class*

All the standard classes (except slides) accept the following options for
selecting the typeface size (10 pt is default):

10pt, 11pt, 12pt

All classes accept these options for selecting the paper size (default is
letter):

a4paper, a5paper, b5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper, executivepaper

Miscellaneous options:

landscape                                       *landscape*
Selects landscape format. Default is portrait.

titlepage, notitlepage                          *notitlepage*
Selects if there should be a separate title page.

leqno                                           *leqno* *rqno*
Equation number on left side of equations.  Default is
right side.

fleqn                                           *fleqn*
Displayed formulas flush left.  Default is centred.

openbib                                         *openbib*
Use "open" bibliography format.

draft, final                                    *draft* *final*
Mark/do not mark overfull boxes with a rule. Default is
final.

These options are not available with the slides class:

oneside, twoside                                *oneside* *twoside*
Selects one- or twosided layout. Default is oneside,
except for the book class.

openright, openany                              *openright* *openany*
Determines if a chapter should start on a right-hand page.
Default is openright for book.

onecolumn, twocolumn                            *onecolumn* *twocolumn*
One or two columns.  Defaults to one column.

The slides class offers the option clock for printing the time at the bottom
of each |\note|.

If you specify more than one option, they must be separated by a comma.

\usepackage[options]{pkg}                       *\usepackage*
specify more than one package, they must be separated by a
comma.

Any options given in the |\documentclass| command that are unknown by the
selected document class are passed on to the packages loaded with |\usepackage|.

==============================================================================
6. Layout                                       *latex-layout*

Miscellaneous commands for controlling the general layout of the page.

|\flushbottom|          Make all text pages the same height.
|\onecolumn|            Use one-column layout.
|\raggedbottom|         Allow text pages of differing height.
|\twocolumn|            Use two-column layout.

\flushbottom                                    *\flushbottom*
Makes all text pages the same height, adding extra vertical
space when necessary to fill out the page.  This is the
standard if twocolumn mode is selected.

\onecolumn                                      *\onecolumn*
Starts a new page and produces single-column output.

\raggedbottom                                   *\raggedbottom*
Makes all pages the height of the text on that page.  No extra

\twocolumn[text]                                *\twocolumn*
Starts a new page and produces two-column output.  If the
optional [text] argument is present, it is typeset in
one-column mode.

==============================================================================
7. Environments                                 *latex-environments*

*\begin* *\end*
LaTeX provides a number of different paragraph-making environments. Each
environment begins and ends in the same manner: >

\begin{environment-name}
.
.
.
\end{environment-name}
<
a. |array|              Math arrays
b. |center|             Centred lines
c. |description|        Labelled lists
d. |enumerate|          Numbered lists
e. |eqnarray|           Sequences of aligned equations
f. |equation|           Displayed equation
g. |figure|             Floating figures
h. |flushleft|          Flushed left lines
i. |flushright|         Flushed right lines
j. |itemize|            Bulleted lists
k. |letter|             Letters
l. |list|               Generic list environment
m. |minipage|           Miniature page
n. |picture|            Picture with text, arrows, lines and circles
o. |quotation|          Indented environment with paragraph indentation
p. |quote-l|            Indented environment with no paragraph indentation
q. |tabbing|            Align text arbitrarily
r. |table|              Floating tables
s. |tabular|            Align text in columns
t. |thebibliography|    Bibliography or reference list
u. |theorem|            Theorems, lemmas, etc
v. |titlepage|          For hand crafted title pages
x. |verbatim|           Simulating typed input
y. |verse|              For poetry and other things

==============================================================================
a. array                                       *array*
>
\begin{array}{col1col2...coln}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{array}

Math arrays are produced with the |array| environment. It has a single mandatory
argument describing the number of columns and the alignment within them. Each
column, coln, is specified by a single letter that tells how items in that row
should be formatted.
* c -- for centred
* l -- for flush left
* r -- for flush right
Column entries must be separated by an |&|. Column entries may include other
LaTeX commands. Each row of the array must be terminated with the string |\\|.

Note that the |array| environment can only be used in |math-mode|, so normally
it is used inside an |equation| environment.

==============================================================================
b. center                                       *center*
>
\begin{center}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{center}

The |\center| environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of lines
that are centred within the left and right margins on the current page. Each
line must be terminated with the string |\\|.

\centering                                      *\centering*
This declaration corresponds to the |center| environment. This
declaration can be used inside an environment such as
|quote-l| or in a |\parbox|. The text of a |figure| or |table|
can be centred on the page by putting a |\centering| command
at the beginning of the |figure| or |table| environment.
Unlike the |center| environment, the |\centering| command does
not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats
paragraph units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the
scope of the declaration must contain the blank line or |\end|
command (of an environment like |quote-l|) that ends the
paragraph unit.

==============================================================================
c. description                                  *description*
>
\begin{description}
\item [label] First item
\item [label] Second item
.
.
.
\end{description}

The |description| environment is used to make labelled lists. The label is
bold face and flushed right.

==============================================================================
d. enumerate                                    *enumerate*
>
\begin{enumerate}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{enumerate}

The |enumerate| environment produces a numbered list.  Enumerations can be
nested within one another, up to four levels deep.  They can also be nested
within other paragraph-making environments.

\item           Each item of an enumerated list begins with an |\item|
command. There must be at least one |\item| command
within the environment.

The |enumerate| environment uses the |\enumi| through |\enumiv| counters (see
section |latex-counters|). The type of numbering can be changed by redefining
\theenumi etc.

==============================================================================
e. eqnarray                                     *eqnarray*
>
\begin{eqnarray}
math formula 1 \\
math formula 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{eqnarray}

The |eqnarray| environment is used to display a sequence of equations or
inequalities. It is very much like a three-column |array| environment, with
consecutive rows separated by |\\| and consecutive items within a row separated
by an |&|.

\nonumber                                       *\nonumber*
An equation number is placed on every line unless that
line has a |\nonumber| command.

\lefteqn                                        *\lefteqn*
The command |\lefteqn| is used for splitting long
formulas across lines.  It typesets its argument in
display style flush left in a box of zero width.

==============================================================================
f. equation                                     *equation*
>

math formula

The |equation| environment centres your equation on the page and places the
equation number in the right margin.

==============================================================================
g. figure                                       *figure*
>
\begin{figure}[placement]
body of the figure
\caption{figure title}
\end{figure}

Figures are objects that are not part of the normal text, and are usually
"floated" to a convenient place, like the top of a page. Figures will not be
split between two pages.

The optional argument [placement] determines where LaTeX will try to place
your figure. There are four places where LaTeX can possibly put a float:

h (Here)                at the position in the text where the figure
environment appears.
t (Top)                 at the top of a text page.
b (Bottom)              at the bottom of a text page.
p (Page of floats)      on a separate float page, which is a page containing
no text, only floats.

The standard |report-class| and |article-class| use the default placement
[tbp].

The body of the |figure| is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands, etc.  you
wish.

The \caption command allows you to title your figure.

==============================================================================
h. flushleft                                    *flushleft*
>
\begin{flushleft}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{flushleft}

The |flushleft| environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of
lines that are flushed left, to the left-hand margin. Each line must be
terminated with the string |\\|.

\raggedright                                    *\raggedright*
This declaration corresponds to the |flushleft| environment.
This declaration can be used inside an environment such as
|quote-l| or in a |\parbox|.  Unlike the |flushleft|
environment, the |\raggedright| command does not start a new
paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph
units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the
declaration must contain the blank line or |\end| command (of
an environment like |quote-l|) that ends the paragraph unit.

==============================================================================
i. flushright                                   *flushright*
>
\begin{flushright}
Text on line 1 \\
Text on line 2 \\
.
.
.
\end{flushright}

The |flushright| environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting of
lines that are flushed right, to the right-hand margin. Each line must be
terminated with the string |\\|.

\raggedleft                                     *\raggedleft*
This declaration corresponds to the |flushright| environment.
This declaration can be used inside an environment such as
|quote-l| or in a |\parbox|.  Unlike the |flushright|
environment, the |\raggedleft| command does not start a new
paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph
units. To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the
declaration must contain the blank line or |\end| command (of
an environment like |quote-l|) that ends the paragraph unit.

==============================================================================
j. itemize                                      *itemize*
>
\begin{itemize}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{itemize}

The |itemize| environment produces a "bulleted" list.  Itemizations can be
nested within one another, up to four levels deep.  They can also be nested
within other paragraph-making environments.

\item                                           *\item*
Each item of an itemized list begins with an |\item| command.
There must be at least one |\item| command within the
environment.

The itemize environment uses the |\itemi| through |\itemiv| counters (see
section |latex-counters|). The type of numbering can be changed by redefining
\theitemi etc.

==============================================================================
k. letter                                       *\letter*

This environment is used for creating letters. See section |latex-letters|.

==============================================================================
l. list                                         *list*

The |list| environment is a generic environment which is used for defining many
of the more specific environments. It is seldom used in documents, but often
in macros.
>
\begin{list}{label}{spacing}
\item First item
\item Second item
.
.
.
\end{list}

'label'         The {label} argument specifies how items should be labelled.
This argument is a piece of text that is inserted in a box to
form the {label}.  This argument can and usually does contain
other LaTeX commands.

'spacing'       The {spacing} argument contains commands to change the spacing
parameters for the |list|. This argument will most often be
null, i.e., {}. This will select all default spacing which
should suffice for most cases.

==============================================================================
m. minipage                                     *minipage*
>
\begin{minipage}[position]{width}
text
\end{minipage}

The |minipage| environment is similar to a |\parbox| command. It takes the
same optional [position] argument and mandatory {width} argument. You may use
other paragraph-making environments inside a |minipage|.  Footnotes in a
minipage environment are handled in a way that is particularly useful for
putting footnotes in figures or tables. A |\footnote| or |\footnotetext|
command puts the footnote at the bottom of the minipage instead of at the
bottom of the page, and it uses the |\mpfootnote| counter instead of the
ordinary footnote counter. See sections |latex-counters| and
|latex-footnotes|.

NOTE: Don't put one |minipage| inside another if you are using footnotes; they
may wind up at the bottom of the wrong minipage.

==============================================================================
n. picture                                      *picture*
>
size           position
\begin{picture}(width,height)(x offset,y offset)
.
.
picture commands
.
.
\end{picture}

The |picture| environment allows you to create just about any kind of picture
you want containing text, lines, arrows and circles. You tell LaTeX where to
put things in the picture by specifying their coordinates. A coordinate is a
number that may have a decimal point and a minus sign -- a number like 5, 2.3
or -3.1416. A coordinate specifies a length in multiples of the unit length
|\unitlength|, so if |\unitlength| has been set to 1cm, then the coordinate
2.54 specifies a length of 2.54 centimetres. You can change the value of
|\unitlength| anywhere you want, using the |\setlength| command, but strange
things will happen if you try changing it inside the |picture| environment.

A position is a pair of coordinates, such as (2.4,-5), specifying the point
with x-coordinate 2.4 and y-coordinate -5. Coordinates are specified in the
usual way with respect to an origin, which is normally at the lower-left
corner of the |picture|.
Note that when a position appears as an argument, it is not enclosed in
braces; the parentheses serve to delimit the argument.

The |picture| environment has one mandatory argument, which is a position.  It
specifies the size of the picture. The environment produces a rectangular box
with width and height determined by this argument's x- and y-coordinates.

The |picture| environment also has an optional position argument, following
the size argument, that can change the origin. (Unlike ordinary optional
arguments, this argument is not contained in square brackets.) The optional
argument gives the coordinates of the point at the lower-left corner of the
picture (thereby determining the origin).  For example, if |\unitlength| has
been set to 1mm, the command: >
\begin{picture}(100,200)(10,20)
>
produces a picture of width 100 millimetres and height 200 millimetres, whose
lower-left corner is the point (10,20) and whose upper-right corner is
therefore the point (110,220). When you first draw a picture, you will omit
the optional argument, leaving the origin at the lower-left corner. If you
then want to modify your picture by shifting everything, you just add the
appropriate optional argument.

The environment's mandatory argument determines the nominal size of the
picture. This need bear no relation to how large the picture really is; LaTeX
will happily allow you to put things outside the picture, or even off the
page. The picture's nominal size is used by LaTeX in determining how much room
to leave for it.

Everything that appears in a picture is drawn by the |\put| command. The
command: >
\put (11.3,-.3){...}

puts the object specified by ... in the picture, with its
reference point at coordinates (11.3,-.3). The reference points for various
objects will be described below.

The |\put| creates an LR box (|lrbox|). You can put anything in the text
argument of the |\put| that you'd put into the argument of an |\mbox| and
related commands. When you do this, the reference point will be the lower left
corner of the box.

Picture commands:
|\circle|               Draw a circle
|\dashbox|              Draw a dashed box
|\frame|                Draw a frame around an object
|\framebox(picture)|    Draw a box with a frame around it
|\line|                 Draw a straight line
|\linethickness|        Set the line thickness
|\makebox(picture)|     Draw a box of the specified size
|\multiput|             Draw multiple instances of an object
|\oval|                 Draw an ellipse
|\put|                  Place an object at a specified place
|\shortstack|           Make a pile of objects
|\vector|               Draw a line with an arrow

\circle[*]{diameter}                            *\circle*
Command produces a circle with a {diameter} as close to the
specified one as possible. If the *-form of the command is
used, LaTeX draws a solid circle.
Note: only circles up to 40 pt can be drawn.

\dashbox{dashlength}(width,height){...}         *\dashbox*
Draws a box with a dashed line.  The |\dashbox| has an extra
argument which specifies the width of each dash.  A dashed box
looks best when the width and height are multiples of the
{dashlength}.

\frame{...}                                     *\frame*
Puts a rectangular frame around the object specified in the
argument. The reference point is the bottom left corner of the
frame. No extra space is put between the frame and the object.

\framebox(width,height)[position]{...}          *\picture-framebox*
The |\framebox| command is exactly the same as the
|picture-makebox| command, except that it puts a frame around
the outside of the box that it creates.  The |\framebox|
command produces a rule of thickness |\fboxrule|, and leaves a
space |\fboxsep| between the rule and the contents of the box.

\line(x slope,y slope){length}                  *\line*
Draws a line of the specified length and slope.
Note: LaTeX can only draw lines with slope = x/y, where x and
y have integer values from -6 through 6.

\linethickness{dimension}                       *\linethickness*
Declares the thickness of horizontal and vertical lines in a
|picture| environment to be dimension, which must be a
positive length. It does not affect the thickness of slanted
lines (|\line|) and circles (|circle|), or the quarter circles
drawn by |\oval| to form the corners of an oval.

\makebox(width,height)[position]{...}           *picture-makebox*
The makebox command for the |picture| environment is similar
to the normal |\makebox| command except that you must specify
a width and height in multiples of |\unitlength|.
The optional argument, [position], specifies the quadrant that
your text appears in. You may select up to two of the
following:
t - Moves the item to the top of the rectangle
b - Moves the item to the bottom
l - Moves the item to the left
r - Moves the item to the right

*\multiput*
\multiput(x coord,y coord)(delta x,delta y){no of copies}{object}
This command can be used when you are putting the same
object in a regular pattern across a picture.

\oval(width,height)[portion]                    *\oval*
Produces a rectangle with rounded corners. The optional
argument, [portion], allows you to select part of the oval.
t - top portion
b - bottom portion
r - right portion
l - left portion
Note: the "corners" of the oval are made with quarter circles
with a maximum radius of 20 pt, so large "ovals" will look
more like boxes with rounded corners.

\put(x coord,y coord){ ... }                    *\put*
Places the item specified by the mandatory argument at the
given coordinates.

\shortstack[position]{... \\ ... \\ ...}        *\shortstack*
The |\shortstack| command produces a stack of objects.
The valid positions are:
r - right of the stack
l - left of the stack
c - centre of the stack (default)

\vector(x slope,y slope){length}                *\vector*
Draws a line with an arrow of the specified length and slope.
The x and y values must lie between -4 and +4, inclusive.

==============================================================================
o. quotation                                    *quotation*
>
\begin{quotation}
text
\end{quotation}

The margins of the |quotation| environment are indented on the left and the
right. The text is justified at both margins and there is paragraph
indentation. Leaving a blank line between text produces a new paragraph.

==============================================================================
p. quote                                        *quote-l*
>
\begin{quote}
text
\end{quote}

The margins of the |quote-l| environment are indented on the left and the right.
The text is justified at both margins.  Leaving a blank line between text
produces a new paragraph.

==============================================================================
q. tabbing                                      *tabbing*
>
\begin{tabbing}
text \= more text \= still more text \= last text \\
second row \>  \> more \\
.
.
.
\end{tabbing}

The |tabbing| environment provides a way to align text in columns. It works by
setting tab stops and tabbing to them much the way you do with an ordinary
typewriter.

It is best suited for cases where the width of each column is constant and

This environment can be broken across pages, unlike the |tabular| environment.
The following commands can be used inside a tabbing enviroment:

*tab=*
\=              Sets a tab stop at the current position.

*tab>*
\>              Advances to the next tab stop.

*tab<*
\<              This command allows you to put something to the left of the
local margin without changing the margin. Can only be used at
the start of the line.

*tab+*
\+              Moves the left margin of the next and all the following
commands one tab stop to the right.

*tab-*
\-              Moves the left margin of the next and all the following
commands one tab stop to the left.

*tab'*
\'              Moves everything that you have typed so far in the current
column, i.e.  everything from the most recent \> (|tab>|), \<
(|tab<|), \' (|tab'|), |\\|, or |\kill| command, to the right
of the previous column, flush against the current column's tab
stop.

*tab*
\              Allows you to put text flush right against any tab stop,
including tab stop 0. However, it can't move text to the right
of the last column because there's no tab stop there. The \
(|tab|) command moves all the text that follows it, up to the
|\\| or \end{tabbing} command that ends the line, to the right
margin of the tabbing environment. There must be no \>
(|tab>|) or \' (|tab'|) command between the \ (|tab|) and
the command that ends the line.

*\kill*
\kill           Sets tab stops without producing text. Works just like |\\|
except that it throws away the current line instead of
producing output for it. The effect of any \= (|tab=|), \+
(|tab+|) or \- (|tab-|) commands in that line remain in
effect.

*\pushtabs*
\pushtabs       Saves all current tab stop positions. Useful for temporarily
changing tab stop positions in the middle of a tabbing
environment. Also restores the tab stop positions saved by the
last |\pushtabs|.

*taba*
\a              In a tabbing environment, the commands \= (|tab=|), \'
(|tab'|) and \ (|tab|) do not produce accents as normal.
Instead, the commands \a=, \a' and \a are used.

This example typesets a Pascal function in a traditional format:
>
\begin{tabbing}
function \= fact(n : integer) : integer;\\
\> begin \= \+ \\
\> if \= n $>$ 1 then \+ \\
fact := n * fact(n-1) \- \\
else \+ \\
fact := 1; \-\- \\
end;\\
\end{tabbing}

==============================================================================
r. table                                        *\table*
>
\begin{table}[placement]
body of the table
\caption{table title}
\end{table}

Tables are objects that are not part of the normal text, and are usually
"floated" to a convenient place, like the top of a page. Tables will not be
split between two pages.

The optional argument [placement] determines where LaTeX will try to place
your table. There are four places where LaTeX can possibly put a float:

h (Here)                at the position in the text where the table
environment appears.
t (Top)                 at the top of a text page.
b (Bottom)              at the bottom of a text page.
p (Page of floats)      on a separate float page, which is a page
containing no text, only floats.

The standard |report-class| and |article-class| use the default placement [tbp].

The body of the table is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands, etc., you
wish.

The \caption command allows you to title your table.

==============================================================================
s. tabular                                      *tabular*
>
\begin{tabular}[pos]{cols}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{tabular}

or
>
\begin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols}
column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
.
.
.
\end{tabular*}

These environments produce a box consisting of a sequence of rows of items,
aligned vertically in columns. The mandatory and optional arguments consist
of:

{width} Specifies the width of the tabular* environment. There must be
rubber space between columns that can stretch to fill out the
specified width.

[pos]   Specifies the vertical position; default is alignment on the
centre of the environment.
t - align on top row
b - align on bottom row

{cols}  Specifies the column formatting. It consists of a sequence of
the following specifiers, corresponding to the sequence of
columns and intercolumn material.
l - A column of left-aligned items.

r - A column of right-aligned items.

c - A column of centred items.

| - A vertical line the full height and depth of the
environment.

@{text} - This inserts text in every row. An @-expression
suppresses the intercolumn space normally inserted
between columns; any desired space between the
inserted text and the adjacent items must be included
in text. An \extracolsep{wd} command in an
@-expression causes an extra space of width {wd} to
appear to the left of all subsequent columns, until
countermanded by another |\extracolsep| command. Unlike
ordinary intercolumn space, this extra space is not
suppressed by an @-expression. An |\extracolsep|
command can be used only in an @-expression in the
cols argument.

p{wd} - Produces a column with each item typeset in a |\parbox|
of width {wd}, as if it were the argument of a
\parbox[t]{wd} command. However, a |\\| may not appear
in the item, except in the following situations:
1. inside an environment like |minipage|, |array|, or
|tabular|.
2. inside an explicit |\parbox|.
3. in the scope of a |\centering|, |\raggedright|, or
|\raggedleft| declaration. The latter declarations must
appear inside braces or an environment when used in a
p-column element.

{num}{cols} - Equivalent to num copies of cols, where num is any positive
integer and cols is any list of column-specifiers,
which may contain another -expression.

These commands can be used inside a tabular environment:

|\cline|                Draw a horizontal line spanning some columns.
|\hline|                Draw a * horizontal line spanning all columns.
|\multicolumn|          Make an item spanning * several columns.
|\vline|                Draw a vertical line.

\cline{i-j}                                     *\cline*
The |\cline| command draws horizontal lines across the columns
specified, beginning in column i and ending in column j,
which are identified in the mandatory argument.

\hline                                          *\hline*
The |\hline| command will draw a horizontal line the width of
the table.  It's most commonly used to draw a line at the top,
bottom, and between the rows of the table.

\multicolumn{cols}{pos}{text}                   *\multicolumn*
The |\multicolumn| is used to make an entry that spans several
columns.  The first mandatory argument, {cols}, specifies the
number of columns to span. The second mandatory argument,
{pos}, specifies the formatting of the entry:
c - centered
l - flushleft
r - flushright.
The third mandatory argument, {text}, specifies what text is
to make up the entry.

\vline                                          *\vline*
The |\vline| command will draw a vertical line extending the
full height and depth of its row. An |\hfill| command can be
used to move the line to the edge of the column. It can also
be used in an @-expression.

==============================================================================
t. thebibliography                              *\thebibliography*
>
\begin{thebibliography}{widestlabel}
\bibitem[label]{cite_key}
.
.
.
\end{thebibliography}

The |\thebibliography| environment produces a bibliography or reference list.

In the |article-class|, this reference list is labelled "References"; in the
|report-class|, it is labelled "Bibliography".

{widestlabel}   Text that, when printed, is approximately as wide as the
widest item label produces by the |\bibitem| commands.

|\bibitem|              Specify a bibliography item.
|\cite|                 Refer to a bibliography item.
|\nocite|               Include an item in the bibliography.
|BibTeX|                Automatic generation of bibliographies.

\bibitem                                        *\bibitem*
\bibitem[label]{citekey}
The |\bibitem| command generates an entry labelled by [label].
If the [label] argument is missing, a number is generated as
the label, using the |\enumi| counter.  The {citekey} is any
sequence of letters, numbers, and punctuation symbols not
containing a comma. This command writes an entry on the .aux'
file containing {citekey} and the item's label. When this
.aux' file is read by the \begin{document} command, the
item's label is associated with {citekey}, causing the
reference to {citekey} by a |\cite| command to produce the
associated label.

\cite                                           *\cite*
\cite[text]{keylist}
The {keylist} argument is a list of citation keys.  This
command generates an in-text citation to the references
associated with the keys in {keylist} by entries on the .aux'
file read by the \begin{document} command.
The optional text argument will appear after the
citation, i.e.: >
\cite[p.2]{knuth}
<               might produce [Knuth, p. 2]'.

\nocite                                         *\nocite*
\nocite{keylist}
The |\nocite| command produces no text, but writes
{keylist}, which is a list of one or more citation
keys, on the .aux' file.

BibTeX                                          *BibTeX* *bibtex*
*\bibliographystyle*
If you use the BibTeX program by Oren Patashnik (highly recommended if you
need a bibliography of more than a couple of titles) to maintain your
bibliography, you don't use the |thebibliography| environment.  Instead, you
include the lines:
>
\bibliographystyle{style}
\bibliography{bibfile}

where {style} refers to a file style.bst, which defines how your citations
will look. The standard styles distributed with BibTeX are:

{alpha} Sorted alphabetically. Labels are formed from name of author and year
of publication.
{plain} Sorted alphabetically. Labels are numeric.
{unsrt} Like plain, but entries are in order of citation.
{abbrv} Like plain, but more compact labels.

In addition, numerous other BibTeX style files exist tailored to the demands
of various publications.

*\bibliography*
The argument to |\bibliography| refers to the file bibfile.bib, which should
contain your database in BibTeX format. Only the entries referred to via
|\cite| and |\nocite| will be listed in the bibliography.

==============================================================================
u. theorem                                      *theorem*
>
\begin{theorem}
theorem text
\end{theorem}

The |theorem| environment produces "Theorem x" in boldface followed by your
theorem text.

==============================================================================
v. titlepage                                    *titlepage*
>
\begin{titlepage}
text
\end{titlepage}

The |titlepage| environment creates a title page, i.e. a page with no printed
page number or heading. It also causes the following page to be numbered page
one. Formatting the title page is left to you. The |\today| command comes in
handy for title pages.

Note that you can use the |\maketitle| to produce a standard title page.

==============================================================================
x. verbatim                                     *verbatim*
>
\begin{verbatim}
text
\end{verbatim}

The |verbatim| environment is a paragraph-making environment that gets LaTeX
to print exactly what you type in. It turns LaTeX into a typewriter with
carriage returns and blanks having the same effect that they would on a
typewriter.

\verb                                           *\verb*
\verb char literal_text char
\verb*char literal_text char
Typesets literal_text exactly as typed, including
special characters and spaces, using a typewriter |\tt|
type style. There may be no space between |\verb| or
|\verb|* and char (space is shown here only for
clarity).  The *-form differs only in that spaces are
printed as \verb*| |\'.

==============================================================================
y. verse                                        *verse*
>
\begin{verse}
text
\end{verse}

The |verse| environment is designed for poetry, though you may find other uses
for it.

The margins are indented on the left and the right. Separate the lines of each
stanza with |\\|, and use one or more blank lines to separate the stanzas.

==============================================================================
8. Footnotes                                    *latex-footnotes*

Footnotes can be produced in one of two ways. They can be produced with one
command, the |\footnote| command. They can also be produced with two commands,
the |\footnotemark| and the |\footnotetext| commands. See the specific command for
information on why you would use one over the other.

|\footnote|     Insert a footnote
|\footnotemark| Insert footnote mark only
|\footnotetext| Insert footnote text only

\footnote[number]{text}                         *\footnote*
Command places the numbered footnote text at the bottom of the
current page. The optional argument, number, is used to change
the default footnote number.  This command can only be used in
outer paragraph mode; i.e., you cannot use it in sectioning
commands like |\chapter|, in |\figure|, |\table| or in a
|\tabular| environment.

\footnotemark                                   *\footnotemark*
Command puts the footnote number in the text. This command can
be used in inner paragraph mode. The text of the footnote is
supplied by the |\footnotetext| command.
This command can be used to produce several consecutive
footnote markers referring to the same footnote by using
>
\footnotemark[\value{footnote}]
<
after the first |\footnote| command.

\footnotetext[number]{text}                     *\footnotetext*
Command produces the text to be placed at the bottom of the
page. This command can come anywhere after the |\footnotemark|
command. The |\footnotetext| command must appear in outer
paragraph mode.  The optional argument, number, is used to
change the default footnote number.

==============================================================================
9. Lengths                                      *latex-lenghts*

A length is a measure of distance. Many LaTeX commands take a length as an
argument.

|\newlength|    Define a new length.
|\setlength|    Set the value of a length.
|\settodepth|   Set a length to  the depth of something.
|\settoheight|  Set a length to the height of  something.
|\settowidth|   Set a length to the width of something.
|pre-lengths|   Lengths that are, like, predefined.

\newlength{\gnat}                               *\newlength*
The |\newlength| command defines the mandatory argument, \gnat,
as a length command with a value of 0in. An error occurs if a

\setlength{\gnat}{length}                       *\setlength*
The |\setlength| command is used to set the value of a \gnat
command. The {length} argument can be expressed in any terms
of length LaTeX understands, i.e., inches (in), millimetres
(mm), points (pt), etc.

The |\addtolength| command increments a \gnat by the amount
specified in the {length} argument. It can be a negative
amount.

\settodepth{\gnat}{text}                        *\settodepth*
The |\settodepth| command sets the value of a \gnat command
equal to the depth of the {text} argument.

\settoheight{\gnat}{text}                       *\settoheight*
The |\settoheight| command sets the value of a \gnat command
equal to the height of the {text} argument.

\settowidth{\gnat}{text}                        *\settowidth*
The |\settowidth| command sets the value of a \gnat command
equal to the width of the {text} argument.

Predefined lengths                              *pre-lengths*

\width                                          *\width*
\height                                         *\height*
\depth                                          *\depth*
\totalheight                                    *\totalheight*
These length parameters can be used in the arguments of the
box-making commands See section Spaces & Boxes. They specify
the natural width etc.  of the text in the box.
\totalheight equals \height + \depth.
To make a box with the text stretched to double the natural
size, e.g., say: >
\makebox[2\width]{Get a stretcher}

==============================================================================
10. Letters                                     *latex-letters*

You can use LaTeX to typeset letters, both personal and business. The letter
document class is designed to make a number of letters at once, although you
can make just one if you so desire.

Your .tex' source file has the same minimum commands as the other document
classes, i.e., you must have the following commands as a minimum: >
\documentclass{letter}
\begin{document}
...
letters
...
\end{document}

Each letter is a letter environment, whose argument is the name and address of
the recipient. For example, you might have: >
\begin{letter}
{Mr. Joe Smith\\
2345 Princess St.  \\
Edinburgh, EH1 1AA}
...
\end{letter}

The letter itself begins with the |\opening| command.  The text of the letter
follows. It is typed as ordinary LaTeX input.  Commands that make no sense in
a letter, like |\chapter|, do not work. The letter closes with a |\closing|
command.

After the closing, you can have additional material. The |\cc| command produces
the usual "cc: ...". There's also a similar |\encl| command for a list of
enclosures. With both these commands, use|\\| to separate the items.

These commands are used with the letter class:
|\cc|           Cc list.  closing Saying goodbye.
|\encl|         List of enclosed material.
|\opening|      Saying hello.
|\startbreaks|  Allow page breaks.
|\stopbreaks|   Disallow page breaks.

The return address, as it should appear on the letter and the
envelope.  Separate lines of the address should be separated
by |\\| commands. If you do not make an |\address| declaration,
then the letter will be formatted for copying onto your
organisation's standard letterhead. (See section Overview of
LaTeX and Local Guide, for details on your local
implementation). If you give an |\address| declaration, then
the letter will be formatted as a personal letter.

\cc{Kate Schechter\\Rob McKenna}                *\cc*
Generate a list of other persons the letter was sent to. Each
name is printed on a separate line.

\closing{text}                                  *\closing*
The letter closes with a |\closing| command, i.e., >
\closing{Best Regards,} \encl{CV\\Certificates}
<               Generate a list of enclosed material.

appears if the firstpage pagestyle is selected.

\makelabels{number}                             *\makelabels*
If you issue this command in the preamble, LaTeX will create a
sheet of address labels. This sheet will be output before the
letters.

\name{June Davenport}                           *\name*
Your name, used for printing on the envelope together with the

\opening{text}                                  *\opening*
The letter begins with the |\opening| command. The mandatory
argument, text, is whatever text you wish to start your
letter, i.e., >
\opening{Dear Joe,}

\ps                                             *\ps*
Use this command before a postscript.

\signature{Harvey Swick}                        *\signature*
Your name, as it should appear at the end of the letter
underneath the space for your signature. Items that should go
on separate lines should be separated by |\\| commands.

\startbreaks                                    *\startbreaks*
Used after a |\stopbreaks| command to allow page breaks again.

\stopbreaks                                     *\stopbreaks*
Inhibit page breaks until a |\startbreaks| command occurs.

\telephone{number}                              *\telephone*
This is your telephone number. This only appears if the
firstpage pagestyle is selected.

==============================================================================
11. Line & Page Breaking                        *latex-breaking*

The first thing LaTeX does when processing ordinary text is to translate your
input file into a string of glyphs and spaces. To produce a printed document,
this string must be broken into lines, and these lines must be broken into
pages. In some environments, you do the line breaking yourself with the |\\|
command, but LaTeX usually does it for you.

|\\|                    Start a new line
|hyph-|                 Insert explicit hyphenation
|\cleardoublepage|      Start a new right-hand page
|\clearpage|            Start a new page
|\enlargethispage|      Enlarge the current page a bit
|\fussy|                Be fussy about line breaking
|\hyphenation|          Tell LaTeX how to hyphenate a word
|\linebreak|            Break the line
|\newline|              Break the line prematurely
|\newpage|              Start a new page
|\nolinebreak|          Don't break the current line
|\nopagebreak|          Don't make a page break here
|\pagebreak|            Please make a page break here
|\sloppy|               Be sloppy about line breaking

\$*][extraspace] *\\* *\\\\* The |\\| command tells LaTeX to start a new line. It has an optional argument, [extraspace], that specifies how much extra vertical space is to be inserted before the next line. This can be a negative amount. The \\* command is the same as the ordinary |\\| command except that it tells LaTeX not to start a new page after the line. \- *hyph-* The \- command tells LaTeX that it may hyphenate the word at that point. LaTeX is very good at hyphenating, and it will usually find all correct hyphenation points. The \- command is used for the exceptional cases. Note: when you insert \- commands in a word, the word will only be hyphenated at those points and not at any of the hyphenation points that LaTeX might otherwise have chosen. \cleardoublepage *\cleardoublepage* The |\cleardoublepage| command ends the current page and causes all figures and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed. In a two-sided printing style (|twoside|), it also makes the next page a right-hand (odd-numbered) page, producing a blank page if necessary. \clearpage *\clearpage* The |\clearpage| command ends the current page and causes all figures and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed. \enlargethispage{size} *\enlargethispage* \enlargethispage*{size} Enlarge the textheight for the current page by the specified amount; e.g.: > \enlargethispage{\baselineskip} < will allow one additional line. The starred form tries to squeeze the material together on the page as much as possible. This is normally used together with an explicit |\pagebreak|. \fussy *\fussy* This declaration (which is the default) makes TeX more fussy about line breaking. This can avoids too much space between words, but may produce overfull boxes. This command cancels the effect of a previous |\sloppy| command. \hyphenation{words} *\hyphenation* The |\hyphenation| command declares allowed hyphenation points, where words is a list of words, separated by spaces, in which each hyphenation point is indicated by a - character. \linebreak[number] *\linebreak* The |\linebreak| command tells LaTeX to break the current line at the point of the command. With the optional argument, number, you can convert the |\linebreak| command from a demand to a request. The [number] must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. The |\linebreak| command causes LaTeX to stretch the line so it extends to the right margin. \newline *\newline* The |\newline| command breaks the line right where it is. It can only be used in paragraph mode. \newpage *\newpage* The |\newpage| command ends the current page. \nolinebreak[number] *\nolinebreak* The |\nolinebreak| command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current line at the point of the command. With the optional argument, [number], you can convert the |\nolinebreak| command from a demand to a request. The [number] must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. \nopagebreak[number] *\nopagebreak* The |\nopagebreak| command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current page at the point of the command. With the optional argument, [number], you can convert the |\nopagebreak| command from a demand to a request. The [number] must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. \pagebreak[number] *\pagebreak* The |\pagebreak| command tells LaTeX to break the current page at the point of the command. With the optional argument, [number], you can convert the |\pagebreak| command from a demand to a request. The [number] must be a number from 0 to 4. The higher the number, the more insistent the request is. \sloppy *\sloppy* This declaration makes TeX less fussy about line breaking. This can prevent overfull boxes, but may leave too much space between words. Lasts until a |\fussy| command is issued. ============================================================================== 12. Making Paragraphs *latex-paragraphs* A paragraph is ended by one or more completely blank lines -- lines not containing even a |\%|. A blank line should not appear where a new paragraph cannot be started, such as in math mode or in the argument of a sectioning command. |\indent| Indent this paragraph. |\noindent| Do not indent this paragraph. |\par| Another way of writing a blank line. \indent *\indent* This produces a horizontal space whose width equals the width of the paragraph indentation. It is used to add paragraph indentation where it would otherwise be suppressed. \noindent *\noindent* When used at the beginning of the paragraph, it suppresses the paragraph indentation. It has no effect when used in the middle of a paragraph. \par *\par* Equivalent to a blank line; often used to make command or environment definitions easier to read. ============================================================================== 13. Margin Notes *latex-margin-notes* \marginpar[left]{right} *\marginpar* This command creates a note in the margin. The first line will be at the same height as the line in the text where the |\marginpar| occurs. When you only specify the mandatory argument {right}, the text will be placed: * in the right margin for one-sided layout * in the outside margin for two-sided layout (|twoside|) * in the nearest margin for two-column layout (|twocolumn|) \reversemarginpar *\reversemarginpar* By issuing the command |\reversemarginpar|, you can force the marginal notes to go into the opposite (inside) margin. When you specify both arguments, left is used for the left margin, and right is used for the right margin. The first word will normally not be hyphenated; you can enable hyphenation by prefixing the first word with a \hspace{0pt} command (|hspace|). ============================================================================== 14. Math Formulae *latex-math* *displaymath* There are three environments (|latex-environments|) that put LaTeX in math mode: |math| For Formulae that appear right in the text. |displaymath| For Formulae that appear on their own line. |equation| The same as the displaymath environment except that it adds an equation number in the right margin. The |math| environment can be used in both paragraph and LR mode, but the |displaymath| and |equation| environments can be used only in paragraph mode. The |math| and |displaymath| environments are used so often that they have the following short forms: $$...$$ instead of \begin{math}...\end{math} \[...$    instead of    \begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}

In fact, the math environment is so common that it has an even shorter form:
$...$    instead of     $$...$$

|sub-sup|       Also known as exponent or index.
|math-symbols|  Various mathematical squiggles.
|math-spacing|  Thick, medium, thin and negative spaces.
|math-misc|     Stuff that doesn't fit anywhere else.

==========
Subscripts & Superscripts                       *sub-sup*
*subscripts* *superscripts*

To get an expression exp to appear as a subscript, you just type _{exp}.  To
get exp to appear as a superscript, you type ^{exp}. LaTeX handles
superscripted superscripts and all of that stuff in the natural way. It even
does the right thing when something has both a subscript and a superscript.

==========
Math Symbols                                    *math-symbols*

LaTeX provides almost any mathematical symbol you're likely to need. The
commands for generating them can be used only in math mode. For example, if
you include >
$\pi$

==========
Spacing in Math Mode                            *math-spacing*

In a math environment, LaTeX ignores the spaces you type and puts in the
spacing that it thinks is best. LaTeX formats mathematics the way it's done in
mathematics texts. If you want different spacing, LaTeX provides the following
four commands for use in math mode:
\; - a thick space                      *math;*
\: - a medium space                     *math:*
\, - a thin space                       *math,*
\! - a negative thin space              *matn!*

==========
Math Miscellany                                 *math-misc*

\cdots                                          *\cdots*
Produces a horizontal ellipsis where the dots are raised to
the centre of the line.
\ddots                                          *\ddots*
Produces a diagonal ellipsis.
\frac{num}{den}                                 *\frac*
Produces the fraction num divided by den.
\ldots                                          *\ldots*
Produces an ellipsis. This command works in any mode, not just
math mode.
\overbrace{text}                                *\overbrace*
Generates a brace over text.
\overline{text}                                 *\overline*
Causes the argument text to be overlined.
\sqrt[root]{arg}                                *\sqrt*
Produces the square root of its argument.  The optional
argument, [root], determines what root to produce, i.e., the
cube root of x+y would be typed as: >
$\sqrt[3]{x+y}$.
\underbrace{text}                               *\underbrace*
Generates text with a brace underneath.
\underline{text}                                *\underline*
Causes the argument text to be underlined. This command can
also be used in paragraph and LR mode.
\vdots                                          *\vdots*
Produces a vertical ellipsis.

==============================================================================
15. Modes                                       *latex-modes*

When LaTeX is processing your input text, it is always in one of three modes:
Paragraph mode                                  *paragraph-mode*
Math mode                                       *math-mode*
Left-to-right mode, called LR mode for short.   *lr-mode*

LaTeX changes mode only when it goes up or down a staircase to a different
level, though not all level changes produce mode changes. Mode changes occur
only when entering or leaving an environment, or when LaTeX is processing the
argument of certain text-producing commands.

|paragraph-mode| is the most common; it's the one LaTeX is in when processing
ordinary text. In that mode, LaTeX breaks your text into lines and breaks the
lines into pages. LaTeX is in |math-mode| when it's generating a mathematical
formula. In |lr-mode|, as in |paragraph-mode|, LaTeX considers the output that
it produces to be a string of words with spaces between them. However, unlike
|paragraph-mode|, LaTeX keeps going from left to right; it never starts a new
line in |lr-mode|. Even if you put a hundred words into an |\mbox|, LaTeX would
keep typesetting them from left to right inside a single box, and then
complain because the resulting box was too wide to fit on the line.

LaTeX is in |lr-mode| when it starts making a box with an |\mbox| command.  You
can get it to enter a different mode inside the box - for example, you can
make it enter |math-mode| to put a formula in the box. There are also several
text-producing commands and environments for making a box that put LaTeX in
|paragraph-mode|. The box make by one of these commands or environments will be
called a |\parbox|. When LaTeX is in |paragraph-mode| while making a box, it is
said to be in "inner paragraph mode". Its normal |paragraph-mode|, which it
starts out in, is called "outer paragraph mode".

==============================================================================
16. Page Styles                                 *latex-page-styles*

The |\documentclass| command determines the size and position of the page's head
and foot. The page style determines what goes in them.

|\maketitle|    Generate a title page.
|\pagenumbering| Set the style used for page numbers.

\maketitle                                      *\maketitle*
The |\maketitle| command generates a title on a separate title
page - except in the |\article| class, where the title normally
goes at the top of the first page.  Information used to
produce the title is obtained from the following declarations:

|\author|       Who wrote this stuff?
|\date|         The date the document was created.
|\thanks|       A special form of footnote.
|\title|                How to set the document title.

\author{names}                          *\author* *\and*
The |\author| command declares the author(s), where
names is a list of authors separated by \and commands.
Use |\\| to separate lines within a single author's
entry -- for example, to give the author's institution

\date{text}                             *\date*
The |\date| command declares text to be the document's
date.  With no |\date| command, the current date is
used.

\thanks{text}                           *\thanks*
The |\thanks| command produces a |\footnote| to the
title.

\title{text}                            *\title*
The |\title| command declares text to be the title. Use
|\\| to tell LaTeX where to start a new line in a long
title.

\pagenumbering{numstyle}                        *\pagenumbering*
Specifies the style of page numbers. Possible values of
'numstyle' are:
arabic - Arabic numerals                *arabic*
roman  - Lowercase Roman numerals       *roman*
Roman  - Uppercase Roman numerals       *Roman*
alph   - Lowercase letters              *alph*
Alph   - Uppercase letters              *Alph*

\pagestyle{option}                              *\pagestyle*
The |\pagestyle| command changes the style from the current
page on throughout the remainder of your document.
The valid options are:
plain      - Just a plain page number.
empty      - Produces empty heads and feet no page numbers.
style specifies what goes in the headings.
myheadings - You specify what is to go in the heading with the
|\markboth| or the |\markright| commands.

|\markboth|     Set left and right headings.

The |\markboth| command is used in conjunction with the
page style myheadings for setting both the left and
Note that a "left-hand heading" is generated by the
last |\markboth| command before the end of the page,
while a "right-hand heading" is generated by the first
|\markboth| or |\markright| that comes on the page if
there is one, otherwise by the last one before the
page.

The |\markright| command is used in conjunction with
the page style |\myheadings| for setting the right
Note that a "left-hand heading" is generated by the
last |\markboth| command before the end of the page,
while a "right-hand heading" is generated by the first
|\markboth| or |\markright| that comes on the page if
there is one, otherwise by the last one before the
page.

\thispagestyle{option}                          *\thispagestyle*
The |\thispagestyle| command works in the same manner as the
|\pagestyle| command except that it changes the style for the
current page only.

==============================================================================
17. Sectioning                                  *latex-sectioning*

Sectioning commands provide the means to structure your text into units.
|\part|
|\chapter| (report and book class only)
|\section|
|\subsection|
|\subsubsection|
|\paragraph|
|\subparagraph|

All sectioning commands take the same general form, i.e.,

*\part*
*\chapter* (report and book class only)
*\section* *\subsection* *\subsubsection*
*\paragraph* *\subparagraph*
\chapter[optional]{title}
mandatory argument of the sectioning command can appear in two
other places:
2. The running head at the top of the page. You may not want
the same thing to appear in these other two places as
appears in the text heading. To handle this situation, the
sectioning commands have an optional argument that provides
the text for these other two purposes.

All sectioning commands have *\-forms that print a title, but do not include a

\appendix                                       *\appendix*
The |\appendix| command changes the way sectional units are
numbered. The |\appendix| command generates no text and does
not affect the numbering of parts. The normal use of this
command is something like: >
\chapter{The First Chapter}
...
\appendix \chapter{The First Appendix}

==============================================================================
18. Spaces & Boxes                              *latex-spaces-boxes*

All the predefined length parameters See section Predefined lengths can be
used in the arguments of the box-making commands.

Horizontal space:

|\dotfill|      Stretchable horizontal dots.
|\hfill|        Stretchable horizontal space.
|\hrulefill|    Stretchable horizontal rule.
|\hspace|       Fixed horizontal space.

Vertical space:

|\bigskip|      Fixed vertical space.
|\medskip|      Fixed vertical space.
|\smallskip|    Fixed vertical space.
|\vfill|        Stretchable vertical space.
|\vspace|       Fixed vertical space.

Boxes:

|\fbox|         Framebox.
|\lrbox|        An environment like |\sbox|.
|\mbox|         Box.
|\newsavebox|   Declare a name for saving a box.
|\parbox|       Box with text in paragraph mode.
|\raisebox|     Raise or lower text.
|\rule|         Lines and squares.
|\savebox|      Like |\makebox|, but save the text for later use.
|\sbox|         Like |\mbox|, but save the text for later use.
|\usebox|       Print saved text.

Horizontal space:                               *latex-hor-space*

LaTeX removes horizontal space that comes at the end of a line. If you don't
want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional * argument.  Then the
space is never removed.

\dotfill                                        *\dotfill*
The |\dotfill| command produces a "rubber length" that produces

\hfill                                          *\hfill*
The |\hfill| fill command produces a "rubber length" which can
stretch or shrink horizontally. It will be filled with spaces.

\hrulefill                                      *\hrulefill*
The |\hrulefill| fill command produces a "rubber length" which
can stretch or shrink horizontally. It will be filled with a
horizontal rule.

\hspace[*]{length}                              *\hspace*
The |\hspace| command adds horizontal space. The length of the
space can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands,
i.e., points, inches, etc. You can add negative as well as
positive space with an |\hspace| command. Adding negative space
is like backspacing.

Vertical space:                                 *latex-ver-space*

LaTeX removes vertical space that comes at the end of a page. If you don't
want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional * argument.  Then the
space is never removed.

height length.  However, if vertical space has already been
added to the same point in the output by a previous
than needed to make the natural length of the total vertical
space equal to length.

\bigskip                                        *\bigskip*
The |\bigskip| command is equivalent to \vspace{bigskipamount}
where bigskipamount is determined by the document class.

\medskip                                        *\medskip*
The |\medskip| command is equivalent to \vspace{medskipamount}
where medskipamount is determined by the document class.

\smallskip                                      *\smallskip*
The |\smallskip| command is equivalent to
\vspace{smallskipamount} where smallskipamount is determined
by the document class.

\vfill                                          *\vfill*
The |\vfill| fill command produces a rubber length which can
stretch or shrink vertically.

\vspace[*]{length}                              *\vspace*
The |\vspace| command adds vertical space. The length of the
space can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands,
i.e., points, inches, etc. You can add negative as well as
positive space with an |\vspace| command.

Boxes:                                          *latex-boxes*

\fbox{text}                                     *\fbox*
The |\fbox| command is exactly the same as the |\mbox| command,
except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that
it creates.

\framebox[width][position]{text}                *\framebox*
The |\framebox| command is exactly the same as the |\makebox|
command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the
box that it creates.
The |\framebox| command produces a rule of thickness
|\fboxrule|, and leaves a space |\fboxsep| between the rule and
the contents of the box.

lrbox                                           *\lrbox*
\begin{lrbox}{cmd} text \end{lrbox}
This is the environment form of |\sbox|.
The text inside the environment is saved in the box cmd, which
must have been declared with |\newsavebox|.

\makebox[width][position]{text}                 *\makebox*
The |\makebox| command creates a box just wide enough to
contain the text specified. The width of the box is specified
by the optional [width] argument.  The position of the text
within the box is determined by the optional [position]
argument.
c -- centred (default)
l -- flushleft
r -- flushright
s -- stretch from left to right margin. The text must
contain stretchable space for this to work.
See section |\picture-makebox|.

\mbox{text}                                     *\mbox*
The |\mbox| command creates a box just wide enough to hold the
text created by its argument.
Use this command to prevent text from being split across
lines.

\newsavebox{cmd}                                *\newsavebox*
Declares {cmd}, which must be a command name that is not
already defined, to be a bin for saving boxes.

\parbox[position][height][innerpos]{width}{text}        *\parbox*
A parbox is a box whose contents are created in
|\paragraph-mode|. The |\parbox| has two

Mandatory arguments:
'width'         specifies the width of the parbox
'text'          the text that goes inside the parbox.

Optional arguments:
'position'      LaTeX will position a parbox so its centre lines up with the
centre of the text line. The optional position argument allows
you to line up either the top or bottom line in the parbox
(default is top).

'height'        If the height argument is not given, the box will have the
natural height of the text.

'innerpos'      The inner-pos argument controls the placement of the text
inside the box. If it is not specified, position is used.
t -- text is placed at the top of the box
c -- text is centred in the box
b -- text is placed at the bottom of the box
s -- stretch vertically. The text must contain
vertically stretchable space for this to work.

A |\parbox| command is used for a parbox containing a small
piece of text, with nothing fancy inside. In particular, you
shouldn't use any of the paragraph-making environments inside
a |\parbox| argument. For larger pieces of text, including ones
containing a paragraph-making environment, you should use a
|\minipage| environment.

\raisebox{distance}[extendabove][extendbelow]{text}   *\raisebox*
The |\raisebox| command is used to raise or lower text. The
first mandatory argument specifies how high the text is to be
raised (or lowered if it is a negative amount). The text
itself is processed in LR mode.
Sometimes it's useful to make LaTeX think something has a
different size than it really does - or a different size than
LaTeX would normally think it has.  The |\raisebox| command
lets you tell LaTeX how tall it is.
The first optional argument, extend-above, makes LaTeX think
that the text extends above the line by the amount specified.
The second optional argument, extend-below, makes LaTeX think
that the text extends below the line by the amount specified.

\rule[raiseheight]{width}{thickness}            *\rule*
The |\rule| command is used to produce horizontal lines. The
arguments are defined as follows:
'raiseheight'   specifies how high to raise the rule (optional)
'width'         specifies the length of the rule (mandatory)
'thickness'     specifies the thickness of the rule (mandatory)

\savebox{cmd}[width][pos]{text}                 *\savebox*
This command typeset text in a box just as for |\makebox|.
However, instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in
bin cmd, which must have been declared with |\newsavebox|.

\sbox{text}                                     *\sbox*
This commands typeset text in a box just as for |\mbox|.
However, instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in
bin cmd, which must have been declared with |\newsavebox|.

\usebox{cmd}                                    *\usebox*
Prints the box most recently saved in bin cmd by a |\savebox|
command.

==============================================================================
19. Special Characters                          *latex-special*

The following characters play a special role in LaTeX and are called "special
printing characters", or simply "special characters". >
#  $% & ~ _ ^ \ { } Whenever you put one of these special characters into your file, you are doing something special. If you simply want the character to be printed just as any other letter, include a \ in front of the character. For example, \$ will
produce $in your output. One exception to this rule is the \ itself because |\\| has its own special meaning. A \ is produced by typing$\backslash\$ in your file.

Also, \~ means place a tilde accent over the following letter', so you will
probably want to use |\verb| instead.
*\symbol*
In addition, you can access any character of a font once you know its number
by using the |\symbol| command. For example, the character used for displaying
spaces in the |\verb|* command has the code decimal 32, so it can be typed as
\symbol{32}.

You can also specify octal numbers with ' or hexadecimal numbers with ", so
the previous example could also be written as \symbol{'40} or \symbol{"20}.

==============================================================================
20. Splitting the Input                         *latex-inputing*

A large document requires a lot of input. Rather than putting the whole input
in a single large file, it's more efficient to split it into several smaller
ones. Regardless of how many separate files you use, there is one that is the
root file; it is the one whose name you type when you run LaTeX.

|\include|              Conditionally include a file
|\includeonly|          Determine which files are included
|\input|                Unconditionally include a file

\include{file}                                  *\include*
The \include command is used in conjunction with the
|\includeonly| command for selective inclusion of
files. The file argument is the first name of a file,
denoting file.tex' . If file is one the file names in
the file list of the |\includeonly| command or if there
is no |\includeonly| command, the \include command is
equivalent to: >
\clearpage \input{file} \clearpage
<
except that if the file file.tex' does not exist,
then a warning message rather than an error is
produced. If the file is not in the file list, the
\include command is equivalent to |\clearpage|.

The |\include| command may not appear in the preamble or in a
file read by another |\include| command.

\includeonly{filelist}                          *\includeonly*
The |\includeonly| command controls which files will be read in
by an |\include| command. {filelist} should be a
comma-separated list of filenames. Each filename must match
exactly a filename specified in a |\include| command. This
command can only appear in the preamble.

\input{file}                                    *\input*
The |\input| command causes the indicated file to be read and
processed, exactly as if its contents had been inserted in the
current file at that point. The file name may be a complete
file name with extension or just a first name, in which case
the file file.tex' is used.
==============================================================================
21. Starting & Ending                           *latex-start-end*

Your input file must contain the following commands as a minimum:
\documentclass{class}           |\documentclass|
\begin{document}                |\begin|
... your text goes here ...
\end{document}                  |\end|

where the class selected is one of the valid classes for LaTeX.
See |\classes|for details of the various document classes.

You may include other LaTeX commands between the |\documentclass| and the
\begin{document} commands (i.e., in the preamble').
==============================================================================

*\tableofcontents*
rest for you. It produces a heading, but it does not automatically start a new
command after the |\tableofcontents| command.

*\listoffigures* *\listoftables*
There are similar commands |\listoffigures| and |\listoftables| for producing a
list of figures and a list of tables, respectively.  Everything works exactly

*\nofiles*
NOTE: If you want any of these items to be generated, you cannot have the

list or table where:
{file}          is the extension of the file on which information is to be
written:
lof (list of figures),
lot (list of tables).
{secunit}       controls the formatting of the entry. It should be one of the
following, depending upon the value of the file argument:
toc -- the name of the sectional unit, such as part or
subsection.
lof -- figure
lot -- table
{entry}         is the text of the entry.

list of figures or tables.
{file}          is the extension of the file on which information is to be written:
lof (list of figures),
lot (list of tables).
{text}          is the information to be written.

==============================================================================
23. Terminal Input/Output                               *latex-terminal*

|\typein|               Read text from the terminal.
|\typeout|              Write text to the terminal.

\typein[cmd]{msg}                                       *\typein*
Prints {msg} on the terminal and causes LaTeX to stop and wait
for you to type a line of input, ending with return. If the
[cmd] argument is missing, the typed input is processed as if
it had been included in the input file in place of the
|\typein| command. If the [cmd] argument is present, it must be
a command name. This command name is then defined or redefined
to be the typed input.

\typeout{msg}                                           *\typeout*
Prints {msg} on the terminal and in the .log' file. Commands
are replaced by their definitions before being printed.

*\space*
LaTeX's usual rules for treating multiple spaces as a single space and
ignoring spaces after a command name apply to {msg}. A |\space| command in {msg}
causes a single space to be printed. A ^^J in {msg} prints a newline.

==============================================================================
24. Typefaces                                   *latex-typefaces*

The typeface is specified by giving the "size" and "style". A typeface is also
called a "font".
|font-styles|           Select roman, italics etc.
|font-size|             Select point size.
|font-lowlevelcommands| Commands for wizards.

Styles                                          *font-styles*

The following type style commands are supported by LaTeX.

These commands are used like: >
\textit{italics text}.
The corresponding command in parenthesis is the "declaration form", which
takes no arguments. The scope of the declaration form lasts until the next
type style command or the end of the current group.

The declaration forms are cumulative; i.e., you can say: >
\sffamily\bfseries
to get sans serif boldface.

You can also use the environment form of the declaration forms; e.g.: >
\begin{ttfamily}...\end{ttfamily}.
<
\textrm (\rmfamily)             *\textrm* *\rmfamily*
Roman

\textit (\itshape)              *\textit* *\itshape* *\emph*
Emphasis (toggles between |\textit| and |\textrm|).

\textmd (\mdseries)             *\textmd* *\mdseries*
Medium weight (default). The opposite of boldface.

\textbf (\bfseries)             *\textbf* *\bfseries*
Boldface.

\textup (\upshape)              *\textup* *\upshape*
Upright (default).  The opposite of slanted.

\textsl (\slshape)              *\textsl* *\slshape*
Slanted.

\textsf (\sffamily)             *\textsf* *\sffamily*
Sans serif.

\textsc (\scshape)              *\textsc* *\scshape*
Small caps.

\texttt (\ttfamily)             *\texttt* *\ttfamily*
Typewriter.

\textnormal (\normalfont)       *\textnormal* *\normalfont*
Main document font.

\mathrm                         *\mathrm*
Roman, for use in math mode.

\mathbf                         *\mathbf*
Boldface, for use in math mode.

\mathsf                         *\mathsf*
Sans serif, for use in math mode.

\mathtt                         *\mathtt*
Typewriter, for use in math mode.

\mathit                         *\mathit*
Italics, for use in math mode, e.g. variable names with
several letters.

\mathnormal                     *\mathnormal*
For use in math mode, e.g. inside another type style
declaration.

\mathcal                        *\mathcal*
Calligraphic' letters, for use in math mode.

*\mathversion*
In addition, the command \mathversion{bold} can be used for switching to bold
letters and symbols in formulas. \mathversion{normal} restores the default.

==========
Sizes                                           *font-size*

The following standard type size commands are supported by LaTeX.

The commands as listed here are "declaration forms". The scope of the
declaration form lasts until the next type style command or the end of the
current group.

You can also use the environment form of these commands; e.g. >
\begin{tiny}...\end{tiny}

\tiny                           *\tiny*
\scriptsize                     *\scriptsize*
\footnotesize                   *\footnotesize*
\small                          *\small*
\normalsize(default)            *\normalsize*
\large                          *\large*
\Large                          *\Large*
\LARGE                          *\LARGE*
\huge                           *\huge*
\Huge                           *\Huge*

==========
Low-level font commands                         *font-lowlevelcommands*

These commands are primarily intended for writers of macros and packages. The
commands listed here are only a subset of the available ones. For full
details, you should consult Chapter 7 of The LaTeX Companion.

\fontencoding{enc}                              *\fontencoding*
Select font encoding. Valid encodings include OT1 and T1.

\fontfamily{family}                             *\fontfamily*
Select font family. Valid families include:
cmr  for Computer Modern Roman
cmss for Computer Modern Sans Serif
cmtt for Computer Modern Typewriter
and numerous others.

\fontseries{series}                             *\fontseries*
Select font series. Valid series include:
m Medium (normal)
b Bold
c Condensed
bc Bold condensed
bx Bold extended
and various other combinations.

\fontshape{shape}                               *\fontshape*
Select font shape. Valid shapes are:
n Upright (normal)
it Italic
sl Slanted (oblique)
sc Small caps
ui Upright italics
ol Outline
The two last shapes are not available for most font families.

\fontsize{size}{skip}                           *\fontsize*
Set font size. The first parameter is the font size to switch
to; the second is the \baselineskip to use. The unit of both
parameters defaults to pt. A rule of thumb is that the
baselineskip should be 1.2 times the font size.

\selectfont                                     *\selectfont*
The changes made by calling the four font commands described
above do not come into effect until |\selectfont| is called.

\usefont{enc}{family}{series}{shape}            *\usefont*
Equivalent to calling |\fontencoding|, |\fontfamily|,
|\fontseries| and |\fontshape| with the given parameters,
followed by |\selectfont|.

==============================================================================
25. Parameters                                  *latex-parameters*

The input file specification indicates the file to be formatted; TeX uses
.tex' as a default file extension. If you omit the input file entirely, TeX
accepts input from the terminal. You specify command options by supplying a
string as a parameter to the command; e.g. >

latex "\scrollmode\input foo.tex"

will process foo.tex' without pausing after every error.

Output files are always created in the current directory. When you fail to
specify an input file name, TeX bases the output names on the file
specification associated with the logical name TEX_OUTPUT, typically
texput.log.

vim:tw=78:ts=8:ft=help:norl: